Solar power

Solar power generating stations

Solar energy has always been a clean eternal source of electricity.

What is new in this range is that the cost of this production through these electro-solar systems is within reach of the middle classes. It has become commonplace to supply remote areas with electricity when conventional energy sources are not available due to the lack of infrastructure or the presence of obstacles preventing the construction of transformers or the extension of cables over large distances.

Where it is possible to provide all the housing facilities , irrigation and lighting networks through the sun dispensing completely in the electricity provided by governments, which may not be sufficient for their basic consumption.

It is also possible to sell any flood of that solar supply to companies that produce and distribute electricity.

However, it should be pointed out at the outset that the implementation of solar energy projects is not always feasible , practical and economical at all levels.

Likewise, there are many systems that should be differentiated by consultants based on the implementation sites and the conditions of the various projects, where many applications and calculations for the solar energy system are used before entering into any in-depth study only to determine an economic feasibility study stating that the solar energy solutions are the most appropriate or not.

Advantages of solar energy stations

  • It is known that the sun’s energy is a natural eternal resource that is always renewed limitless.

  • Solar cells are easy to use and do not need heavy equipment or professional skills.

  • Solar panels can be installed on different types of home surfaces in a range of small projects other than wind energy, which need huge facilities and large areas invaded by wind.

  • Suitable for remote places that lack the supply of cables, and it is one of the best things to generate electricity through it in islands and mountains, even in space on the back of satellites.

  • We do not have a maintenance burden that requires technicians or spare parts, but a little effort of cleaning to maintain the efficiency of the system.

  • The general shape of the solar energy panels is acceptable and almost invisible when it is installed on the roofs.

  • Stations at homes and others do not cause any emissions harmful to the environment or humans, and no noise arises from them.

  • Stations represent a good investment that some people may be able to master in the event that they can sell production to electricity distribution companies.

  • The consumer can achieve his self-sufficiency, avoiding the coming energy crises and the current electricity price increases.

Obstacles facing solar energy stations

  • The construction of these stations costs amounts that are not small and these costs are in the way of those who currently obtain subsidized electricity and put their money heads in the banks, so they cannot estimate the situation in the future when the subsidy is lifted from the electricity or the value of interest is reduced in the banks or the emergence of more energy crises appears.

  • There is no doubt that the efficiency of the solar cells decreases in their production of electricity in rainy and cloudy days, so we find that the networks that are not connected to the government electricity source need storage batteries seeking at least 3 days duration so that the consumer does not suffer from the power outages during bad weather conditions.

  • Energy storage in the battery system is very expensive, and the life span is low compared to the price. Also the battery is only charged during the day.

  • For factories and companies, it takes very large areas to install the solar system panels in order to show its effectiveness in providing and saving electricity.

Information of interest:

The expected lifetime of solar stations: –

The panels have a shelf life of 25 years

Inverters have a shelf life of 5 to 10 years, depending on quality

Batteries from 2 years to 4 years, depending on type and quality

Space required for installing panels: –

We need for every kilowatt, an area of ​​8 to 10 square meters

Dual Net Metering box

In the system of solar energy stations connected to the government network, we use this meter, which reads the production of the station and then reads the customer’s consumption to determine the difference necessary to withdraw or pump it into the government network, and thus the net bill provided to the customer is positive or negative according to the production of his solar station and his electric consumption, enjoying the advantage of non-power outages About him if his station is not providing enough.

Solar cells specifications

Cells are made from semiconducting materials, such as silicon, so they have the ability to absorb light from the sun because silicon is a very shiny substance that is exploited by coating it with anti-reflective material so the photons emitted from that luminosity and absorbed to that light are bounced and retained inside the cells and prevented from reflection again. Then it is placed a Glass cover to seal the cell solar perfectly to be protected from external factors and scratching.

The plate consists of a group of PV Cells connected within one frame, among which are a group of welds existed.

Types of solar cells

1- Mono crystalline Silicon

They are alloys made from pure silicon crystals that are cut into strips that are not adherent, and this makes them single panels with a consistent and distinctive appearance and is one of the most expensive types because they can give an efficiency of 18% to 22% as well as a life span of 25 years.

2- Poly crystalline Silicon

Here, many silicon cells have compact boxes that differ in shape from the single panels (Mono crystalline Silicon), where some consider them to have an aesthetic appearance less than that single ones, which makes them less expensive, but they are actually not more than 17% effective and have a shelf life of 25 years.

3- Thin Film

This type of cell is characterized by its fluidity due to its light weight and low thickness, it is similar to the flexible chip, which makes it suitable for many mobile uses on the facades and surfaces of vehicles because it takes the form of the surface that we install on it, but its main disadvantage is that it is less efficient than the rest of the types, as it does not exceed 12% efficiency as well its shelf life is only 15 years, and it is the most expensive of all, if the short shelf life is calculated with the lack of efficiency in the price equation.

Ways to connect the solar panels

All panels used must be of the same type and capacity to maintain the good performance of the panel matrix . When we stand on the differences between the series connection and parallel connection while achieving the best interest in the station productivity, the type of installation, however it does not affect the total energy

  • When we connect them in series, the voltage value is doubled and the ampere remains constant.

  • When we conduct them in parallel, the ampere doubles and the voltage value remains constant.

 As for what constitutes the difference, not the amperes or the values of the voltage, but the total energy, in case of connecting 10 panels, 250 watts, we get a total energy of 2500 watts, whether they are connected in series or parallel, or both together.